The children working, living and surviving on the street is a global problem, affecting developed and developing countries alike. However, the magnitude of the problem varies, with less developed countries facing more acute problems. The street children are marginalised children who require enormous assistance but they are often least assisted in a society. There are many factors responsible for the increase in the rate of street children and this has necessitated this type of research. This study, therefore, investigated the social factors as correlates of streetism among urban children in Ibadan Metropolis. The study adopted survey research design of the ex-post facto type. Five local governments were purposively selected in urban areas in Ibadan. The respondents selected randomly from each local government area were made up of 50 participants from five local governments, making a total of 250 participants. Questionnaire was the major instrument that was developed and used for the study. The questionnaire was divided into sections A and B. Section A was to elicit relevant general information from the respondents. While section B consisted of thirty-five structured items on Streetism (r=0.7380) and Social Factors (r=0.7714). Three research questions were answered. Data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment correlation and multiple regression statistics. The four variables have a joint positive multiple correlation with streetism (R=.564). The four independent variables also accounted for 30.7% of the variance of street children engage in streetism (Adjusted R2 =.307). Child-independence made the most significant contribution to streetism among urban children (β=.421; p<0.05) and followed by socio-parental factor (β=.205; p<0.05). Streetism among urban children was predicted by child-independence (B=1.494, t=6.146; p<0.05) and socio-parental factor (B=.149, t=2.776; p<0.05). The combination of social factor variables (socio-external pulling factor, socio-parental factor, child independence and socio-community factor) proved more effective in predicting streetism among urban children in Ibadan than when considered separately. Child-independence and socio-parental factor are the most potent factors at explaining streetism among urban children. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to reduce the rate of street children in urban area in Ibadan metropolis.
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